Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Chapter 2 Questions: Understanding the Teaching-Learning Process

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3)        There are five different requirements for an individual to learn a motor skill which include prerequisites, a clear idea of the task, the implication of the teacher, motivational/attentional disposition to the skill, practice, and feedback. The prerequisite stage requires the learner to possess previous related skills to assist in the understanding of the motor skill. In most cases, the individual must master similar abilities related to the motor skill/s being learned. Physical ability also has an effect in an individuals development in learning a motor skill. For younger children, physical abilities come from the process of maturity and may prove to be more difficult to learn a motor skill. A clear idea of the task comes from a great instructor who facilitates a plan to accomplish the task. The instructor must be able to provide good demonstrations for the learner to completely understand the correct body motions. Many individuals do not have a clear idea of a task because of previous false information, so he/she is performing the skill incorrect. Sometimes the body can do the skill right, but the mind second guesses the movement of the body and the end result is wrong. Motivation/attentional disposition to the skill relates to how motivated the leaner is and how willing he/she is to listening to his/her instructor. For a person to learn the individual must be motivated to take part in task. The more motivated an individual is he/she will be pay more attention to detail, and later become more effective in the task. In order to stay motivated he/she must have a good instructor who alters activities constantly, so the learner does not lose interest in the task. Practice is an important factor to learning a motor skill because it helps the consistency of an individual's performance. The more practice one does the more he/she will understand the basic body motions involved in the task. Everyone benefits from practice because it positively refines skills related to the task. Nothing is more true than the saying "practice makes perfect"! Feedback is extremely important to develop a motor skill because it allows the individual or others to critique a performance. Providing feedback to someone is crucial and beginning with something positive is crucial as well. The feedback from others and yourself can be beneficial because the learner can improve upon the skills connected with the activity. Some people do not like feedback, but it is a stepping stone to become better. Others respect feedback and use it for motivation to work harder.

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4)        Closed, open, discrete, and serial skills should be taught in different manners. A closed skill involves the conditions in the environment to remain consistent. An example of a closed skill would consist of a tennis player serving the ball to the opposition. Open skills refer to those variables which are not consistent with the environment and are expected to change. Passing a football in game-like situations represent an open skill because the angle from the quarterback to the receiver is constantly changing. Discrete skills are those skills making up the majority of the sport such as hitting and throwing. Serial skills are a series of motions put together to complete the purpose of the activity, like the triple jump in track. These skills must be taught to students differently because some skills are self-paced, while other skills are externally-paced. Self-paced skills need the conditions to be consistent throughout the lesson and externally-paced skills must be taught in environments with the likeliness of change. There is no reason for a teacher to teach a closed skill in an environment producing constant change, and instructing an open skill in a stable environment. All of the skills are best comprehended when the instructor uses various advancement within the task. The teacher must gradually advance the practices into game-like situations, so the students know what can be expected. With discrete skills the teacher needs to focus on bodily functions from the beginning to the end. A teacher has to break down the movements step-by-step for the students to understand and perform correctly. In serial skills the teacher focuses on how well a student transitions from one skill to the next. The teacher must prepare the students for the next skill by combining these skills in a teaching exercise. In conclusion, the skill being taught to the students must resemble similar conditions the students would face in a game.

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